Each year, more than 4,000 Americans die and more than 25,000 are
To protect yourself, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of fire.
injured in fires, many of which could be prevented.
Direct property loss due to fires is estimated at
$8.6 billion annually. HOUSE FIRE
Fire spreads quickly; there is no time to gather valuables or make a phone call.
In just two minutes, a fire can become life-threatening. In five minutes, a residence can be engulfed in flames.
Heat and smoke from fire can be more dangerous than the flames. Inhaling the super-hot air can sear your lungs.
Fire produces poisonous gases that make you disoriented and drowsy. Instead of being awakened by a fire,
you may fall into a deeper sleep. Asphyxiation is the leading cause of fire deaths, exceeding burns by a
What to do Before a Fire
The following are things you can do to protect yourself, your family, and your property in the event of a fire:
· Install smoke alarms. Properly working smoke alarms decrease your chances of dying in a fire by half.
· Place smoke alarms on every level of your residence. Place them outside bedrooms on the ceiling or high
on the wall (4 to 12 inches from ceiling), at the top of open stairways, or at the bottom of enclosed stairs
and near (but not in) the kitchen.
· Test and clean smoke alarms once a month and replace batteries at least once a year.
Replace smoke alarms once every 10 years.
Escaping the Fire
· Review escape routes with your family. Practice escaping from each room.
· Make sure windows are not nailed or painted shut. Make sure security gratings
on windows have a fire safety opening feature so they can be easily opened from the inside.
· Consider escape ladders if your residence has more than one level, and ensure that burglar bars and
other antitheft mechanisms that block outside window entry are easily opened from the inside.
· Teach family members to stay low to the floor (where the air is safer in a fire)
when escaping from a fire.
· Clean out storage areas. Do not let trash, such as old newspapers and magazines, accumulate.
· Never use gasoline, benzine, naptha, or similar flammable liquids indoors.
· Store flammable liquids in approved containers in well-ventilated storage areas.
· Never smoke near flammable liquids.
· Discard all rags or materials that have been soaked in flammable liquids after
you have used them. Safely discard them outdoors in a metal container.
· Insulate chimneys and place spark arresters on top. The chimney should be at least three feet higher
than the roof. Remove branches hanging above and around the chimney.
· Be careful when using alternative heating sources.
· Check with your local fire department on the legality of using kerosene heaters
in your community. Be sure to fill kerosene heaters outside, and be sure they have cooled.
· Place heaters at least three feet away from flammable materials. Make sure the floor and nearby
walls are properly insulated.
· Use only the type of fuel designated for your unit and follow manufacturer’s instructions.
· Store ashes in a metal container outside and away from your residence.
· Keep open flames away from walls, furniture, drapery, and flammable items.
· Keep a screen in front of the fireplace.
· Have heating units inspected and cleaned annually by a certified specialist
Matches and Smoking
· Keep matches and lighters up high, away from children, and, if possible,
in a locked cabinet.
· Never smoke in bed or when drowsy or medicated. Provide smokers with deep,
sturdy ashtrays. Douse cigarette and cigar butts with water before disposal.
· Have the electrical wiring in your residence checked by an electrician.
· Inspect extension cords for frayed or exposed wires or loose plugs.
· Make sure outlets have cover plates and no exposed wiring.
· Make sure wiring does not run under rugs, over nails, or across high-traffic areas.
· Do not overload extension cords or outlets. If you need to plug in two or three appliances,
get a UL-approved unit with built-in circuit breakers to prevent sparks and short circuits.
· Make sure insulation does not touch bare electrical wiring.
· Sleep with your door closed.
· Install A-B-C-type fire extinguishers in your residence and teach family members how to use them.
· Consider installing an automatic fire sprinkler system in your residence.
· Ask your local fire department to inspect your residence for fire safety
What to do During a Fire
If your clothes catch on fire, you should:
· Stop, drop, and roll - until the fire is extinguished.
Running only makes the fire burn faster.
To escape a fire, you should:
· Check closed doors for heat before you open them.
If you are escaping through a closed door, use the back of your hand to feel
the top of the door, the doorknob, and the crack between the door and door frame before you open it.
Never use the palm of your hand or fingers to test for heat - burning those areas could impair your
ability to escape a fire (i.e., ladders and crawling).
IF THE DOOR IS HOT
Do not open. escape through a window If you can not escape, hang a white or light-colored sheet outside
the window, alerting firefighters to your presence.
IF THE DOOR IS COOL
Open slowly and ensure fire and/or smoke is not blocking your escape route. If your escape
route is blocked, shut the door immediately and use an alternate escape route,
such as a window. If clear, leave immediately through the door and close it behind you.
Be prepared to crawl. Smoke and heat rise. The air is clearer and cooler near the floor.
· Crawl low under any smoke to your exit - heavy smoke and poisonous gases
collect first along the ceiling.
· Close doors behind you as you escape to delay the spread of the fire.
· Stay out once you are safely out. Do not reenter.
What to do After a Fire
The following are guidelines for different circumstances in the period following a fire:
· If you are with burn victims, or are a burn victim yourself, call 9-1-1;
cool and cover burns to reduce chance of further injury or infection.
· If you detect heat or smoke when entering a damaged building, evacuate immediately.
· If you are a tenant, contact the landlord.
· If you have a safe or strong box, do not try to open it. It can hold intense heat
for several hours. If the door is opened before the box has cooled, the contents could burst into flames.
· If you must leave your home because a building inspector says the building is unsafe, ask someone you
trust to watch the property during your absence.
To protect yourself, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of fire.
The threat of wildland fires for people living near wildland areas or using recreational
facilities in wilderness areas is real. Dry conditions at various times of the year and in various
parts of the United States greatly increase the potential for wildland fires.
Advance planning and knowing how to protect buildings in these areas can lessen the devastation of a wildland fire.
There are several safety precautions that you can take to reduce the risk of fire losses. Protecting your home
from wildfire is your responsibility.
To reduce the risk, you'll need to consider the fire resistance of your home, the topography of your property
and the nature of the vegetation close by.
Find Out What Your Fire Risk Is
Learn about the history of wildfire in your area. Be aware of recent weather.
A long period without rain increases the risk of wildfire. Consider having a
professional inspect your property and offer recommendations for reducing the
wildfire risk. Determine your community's ability to respond to wildfire.
Are roads leading to your property clearly marked? Are the roads wide enough to allow firefighting
equipment to get through? Is your house number visible from the roadside?
Learn and teach safe fire practices.
· Build fires away from nearby trees or bushes.
· Always have a way to extinguish the fire quickly and completely.
· Install smoke detectors on every level of your home and near sleeping areas.
· Never leave a fire--even a cigarette--burning unattended.
· Avoid open burning completely, and especially during dry season.
Always be ready for an emergency evacuation.
Evacuation may be the only way to protect your family in a wildfire.
Know where to go and what to bring with you. You should plan several
escape routes in case roads are blocked by a wildfire.
Create Safety Zones Around Your Home
All vegetation is fuel for a wildfire, though some trees and shrubs are more
flammable than others. To reduce the risk, you will need to modify or eliminate brush,
trees and other vegetation near your home. The greater the distance is between your home
and the vegetation, the greater the protection.
Create a 30-foot safety zone around the house.
Keep the volume of vegetation in this zone to a minimum.
If you live on a hill, extend the zone on the downhill side.
Fire spreads rapidly uphill. The steeper the slope, the more open
space you will need to protect your home. Swimming pools and patios can
be a safety zone and stone walls can act as heat shields and deflect flames.
In this zone, you should also do the following:
· Remove vines from the walls of the house.
· Move shrubs and other landscaping away from the sides of the house.
· Prune branches and shrubs within 15 feet of chimneys and stove pipes.
· Remove tree limbs within 15 feet of the ground.
· Thin a 15-foot space between tree crowns.
· Replace highly flammable vegetation such as pine, eucalyptus, junipers and
fir trees with lower growing, less flammable species. Check with your local
fire department or garden store for suggestions.
· Replace vegetation that has living or dead branches from the ground-level up
(these act as ladder fuels for the approaching fire).
· Cut the lawn often keeping the grass at a maximum of 2 inches. Watch grass and
other vegetation near the driveway, a source of ignition from automobile exhaust systems.
· Clear the area of leaves, brush, evergreen cones, dead limbs and fallen trees.
Create a second zone at least 100 feet around the house.
This zone should begin about 30 feet from the house and extend to at least 100 feet.
In this zone, reduce or replace as much of the most flammable vegetation as possible.
If you live on a hill, you may need to extend the zone for several hundred feet to provide
the desired level of safety.
Clear all combustibles within 30 feet of any structure.
· Install electrical lines underground, if possible
· Ask the power company to clear branches from power lines.
· Avoid using bark and wood chip mulch
· Stack firewood 100 feet away and uphill from any structure.
· Store combustible or flammable materials in approved safety containers and keep them away from the house.
· Keep the gas grill and propane tank at least 15 feet from any structure.
Clear an area 15 feet around the grill. Place a 1/4 inch mesh screen over the grill. Always use the
grill cautiously but refrain from using it all during high risk times.
Protect Your Home
debris from under sun decks and porches.
Any porch, balcony or overhang with exposed space underneath is fuel for an approaching fire.
Overhangs ignite easily by flying embers and by the heat and fire that get trapped underneath.
If vegetation is allowed to grow underneath or if the space is used for storage, the hazard is
increased significantly. Clear leaves, trash and other combustible materials away from underneath
sun decks and porches.
Extend 1/2-inch mesh screen from all overhangs down to the ground. Enclose wooden stilts
with non-combustible material such as concrete, brick, rock, stucco or metal.
Use non-combustible patio furniture and covers. If you're planning a porch or sun deck,
use non-combustible or fire-resistant materials. If possible, build the structure to the ground
so that there is no space underneath.
Enclose eaves and overhangs.
Like porches and balconies, eaves trap the heat rising along the exterior siding.
Enclose all eaves to reduce the hazard.
Cover house vents with wire mesh.
Any attic vent, soffit vent, louver or other opening can allow embers and flaming debris to enter
a home and ignite it. Cover all openings with 1/4 inch or smaller corrosion-resistant wire mesh.
If you're designing louvers, place them in the vertical wall rather than the soffit of the overhang.
Install spark arrestors in chimneys and stovepipes.
Chimneys create a hazard when embers escape through the top.
To prevent this, install spark arrestors on all chimneys, stovepipes and vents
for fuel-burning heaters. Use spark arrestors made of 12-gauge welded or woven wire mesh screen
with openings 1/2 inch across. Ask your fire department for exact specifications.
If you're building a chimney, use non-combustible materials and make sure the top of the chimney
is at least two feet higher than any obstruction within 10 feet of the chimney. Keep the chimney clean.
Use fire resistant siding.
Use fire resistant materials in the siding of your home, such as stucco, metal, brick, cement shingles,
concrete and rock. You can treat wood siding with UL-approved fire retardant chemicals,
but the treatment and protection are not permanent.
Choose safety glass for windows and sliding glass doors.
Windows allow radiated heat to pass through and ignite combustible materials inside.
The larger the pane of glass, the more vulnerable it is to fire.
Dual- or triple-pane thermal glass, and fire resistant shutters or drapes, help reduce the wildfire risk.
You can also install non-combustible awnings to shield windows and use shatter-resistant glazing such
as tempered or wireglass.
Prepare for water storage;
develop an external water supply such as a small pond, well or pool.
Other safety measures to consider at the time of construction or remodeling.
· Choose locations wisely; canyon and slope locations increase the risk of
exposure to wildland fires.
· Use fire-resistant materials when building, renovating, or retrofitting
· Avoid designs that include wooden decks and patios.
· Use non-combustible materials for the roof.
· The roof is especially vulnerable in a wildfire. Embers and flaming debris
can travel great distances, land on your roof and start a new fire.
Avoid flammable roofing materials such as wood, shake and shingle.
Materials that are more fire resistant include single ply membranes,
fiberglass shingles, slate, metal, clay and concrete tile.
Clear gutters of leaves and debris.
What to do During a Wildfire
Survival in a Vehicle
· This is dangerous and should only be done in an emergency, but you can survive from a fire on foot.
· Roll up windows and close air vents. Drive slowly with headlights on.
Watch for other vehicles and pedestrians. Do not drive through heavy smoke.
· If you have to stop, park away from the heaviest trees and brush.
Turn headlights on and ignition off. Roll up windows and close air vents.
· Get on the floor and cover up with a blanket or coat.
· Stay in the vehicle until the main fire passes.
· Stay in the car. Do not run! Engine may stall and not restart. Air currents may rock the car.
Some smoke and sparks may enter the vehicle. Temperature inside will increase. Metal gas tanks
and containers rarely explode.
If You Are Trapped at Home
· Stay calm. As the fire front approaches, go inside the house.
You can survive inside. The fire will pass before your house burns down.
If Caught in the Open
· The best temporary shelter is in a sparse fuel area.
On a steep mountainside, the back side is safer.
Avoid canyons, natural "chimneys" and saddles.
· If a road is nearby, lie face down along the road cut or in the ditch on the uphill side.
Cover yourself with anything that will shield you from the fire's heat.
· If hiking in the back country, seek a depression with sparse fuel.
Clear fuel away from the area while the fire is approaching and then lie
face down in the depression and cover yourself. Stay down until after the fire passes!
What to do After a Wildfire
· Check the roof immediately. Put out any roof fires, sparks or embers.
Check the attic for hidden burning sparks.
· If you have a fire, get your neighbors to help fight it.
· The water you put into your pool or hot tub and other containers will come
in handy now. If the power is out, try connecting a hose to the outlet on your
· For several hours after the fire, maintain a "fire watch."
Re-check for smoke and sparks throughout the house.